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Tsi-Chian Chao




Tsi-Chian Chao


Associate Professor


PhD, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

TEL & Mail:

03 - 2118800 # 5385/5395


Research Interest :

  1. Monte-Carlo Simulation

  2. Image Processing

  3. Digital Phantom

Association :

08/2003 ~ now

AAPM Full Member

Award/Licence :

01/2004 ~ now

Senior Radiation Protection Personnel

Instruction Courses :

  1. Medical Health Physics

  2. The Radiological Physics Laboratory

  3. Applied Mathematics

  4. Radiation Dosimetry

Lab Website:

RT Lab

Journal Papers

1.    Yu PC, Nien HH, Tung CJ, Lee HY, Lee CC, Wu CJ, Chao TC (accepted). CT-based MCNPX dose calculations for gynecology brachytherapy employing a Henschke applicator. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

2.      Lin YC, Pan CY, Chiang KJ, Yuan MC, Chu CH, Tsai YW, Teng PK, Lin CH, Chao TC, Lee CC, Tung CJ, Chen AE (accepted). Monte Carlo simulations for angular and spatial distributions in therapeutic-energy proton beams. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

3.      Yeh PCY, Lee CC, Chao TC, Tung CJ (accepted).  Monte Carlo evaluation of Acuros XB dose calculation Algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

4.      Lin YC, Lee CC, Chao TC, Tsai HY, (accepted).  Ambient neutron dose equivalent during proton therapy using wobbling scanning system: Measurements and calculations.  . Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

5.      Cho IC, Wen WH, Chao TC, Tung CJ (accepted). Microdosimetry measurements for low-energy particles using a mini TEPC with removable plug. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

6.      Chen SK, Chiang BH, Lee CC, Tung CJ, Hong JH, Chao TC (accepted). The impact of MCS models and EFAC values on the dose simulation for a proton pencil beam. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

7.      Chao TC, Tsai YC, Chen SK, Wu SW, Tung CJ, Hong JH, Wang CC, Lee CC (accepted). An MCNPX2.7.0 study of Bragg peak degradation owing to density heterogeneity patterns for a CGMH therapeutic proton beam. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

8.     Lin YS, Chao TC, Hong JH, Tung CJ (accepted). Comparisons of longitudinal and lateral dose profiles and relative biological effectiveness for DNA double strand breaks among 1 H, 4 He and 12 C beams. Radiation Physics and Chemistry.

9.      Wu SW, Tung CJ, Lee CC, Fan KH, Huang HC, Chao TC  (2015).  Impact of the material composition on proton range variation – A Monte Carlo study. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116, 199-202.

10.  Chao TC, Wei SC, Wu SW, Tung CJ, Tu SJ, Cheng HW, Lee CC (2015). Dual-resolution dose assessments for proton beamlet using MCNPX 2.6.0. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 116, 237-240..

11.  Lee CC, Lee YJ, Chen SK, Chiang BH, Tung CJ, Chao TC (2015). MCNPX simulation of proton dose distributions in a water phantom. Biomedical Journal, 38 (5), 414-420. NSC 102-2314-B-182-054..

12.  Cai SY, Chao TC, Lin MJ, Tung CJ, Lee CC (2015). Depth dose characteristics of proton beams within therapeutic energy range using the particle therapy simulation framework (PTSim) Monte Carlo technique. Biomedical Journal, 38 (5), 408-413.

13.  Huang YW, Pan CY, Hsiao YY, Chao TC, Lee CC, Tung CJ (2015). Monte Carlo simulations of the relative biological effectiveness for DNA double strand breaks from 300 MeV u− 1 carbon-ion beams. Physics in medicine and biology, 60 (15), 5995-6012.

14.  Lo CJ, Yang PY, Chao TC, Tu SJ (2015). Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 784:606-609.

15.  Pan CY, Huang YW, Cheng KH, Chao TC, Tung CJ (2014, Dec). Microdosimetry spectra and relative biological effectiveness of 15 and 30 MeV proton beams. Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 97:101-105.

16.  C. Y. Yeh , C. J. Tung , T. C. Chao , M. H. Lin and C. C. Lee (2014, Nov). A dual resolution measurement based Monte Carlo simulation technique for detailed dose analysis of small volume organs in the skull base region. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 104(2014):389–392

17.  Lee, CC; Wu, JF; Chang, KP; Chu, CH; Wey, SP; Liu, HL; Tung, CJ; Wu, SW; Chao, TC; (2014, Nov). The use of normoxic polymer gel for measuring dose Distributions of 1, 4 and 30mm Cones. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 104(2014): 221–224.

18.  C.Y. Yeh, C.J. Tung, C.C. Lee, M.H. Lin, T.C. Chao (2014, Apr). Measurement-based Monte Carlo Simulation of High Definition Dose Evaluation for Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients Treated by using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Radiation Measurements, 71:333-337.

19.  C. Y. Yeh, C. C. Lee, T. C. Chao, M. H. Lin, P. A. Lai, F. H. Liu and C. J. Tung (2014, Feb). Application of Measurement-based Monte Carlo Method in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Patients for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy. Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 95, 240-242.

20.  Lee CC, Lee YJ, Tung CJ, Cheng HW, Chao TC* (2014, Feb). MCNPX Simulation of Proton Dose Distribution in Homogeneous and CT Phantoms. Radiation Physics and Chemsitry, 95 (2014) 302–304.

21.  Chao TC, Wang CC, Li JL, Li CY, Tung CJ (2012, Jan). Cellular- and micro-dosimetry of heterogeneously distributed tritium.. Int J Radiat Biol., 88:151-7

22.  Wang CC, Hsiao Y, Lee CC, Chao TC, Wang CC, Tung CJ (2012, Jan). Monte Carlo simulations of therapeutic proton beams for relative biological effectiveness of double-strand break. Int J Radiat Biol., 88:158-63.

23.  Chao TC, Kao YF, Lee CC, Tung CJ (2011, Dec). Dose assessment for chest X-ray examination based on a voxelised human model. Radi. Meas., 46(12):2077-80.

24.  Chao TC, Yu PC, Lee CC, Wu CJ, Tung CJ (2011, Dec). In vivo dosimetry with asymmetry and heterogeneity correction. Radi. Meas., 46(12):1956-9

25.  Cheng HW, Ho CJ, Lee CC, Tu SJ, Shih BY, Chao TC* (2011, Dec). Development of a novel optical CT employing a laser to create a collimated line-source with a flat-top intensity distribution. Radi. Meas., 46(12):1932-5.

26.  Chu, WH; Lan, JH; Chao, TC; Lee, CC; Tung, CJ; (2011, Dec). Neutron spectrometry and dosimetry around 15 MV linac. Radiation Measurements, 46(12):1741–1744.

27.  Lee CC, Chen AM, Tung CJ, Chao TC* (2011, Dec). Monte Carlo simulation of small field electron beams for small animal irradiation. Radi. Meas., 46(12):2003-5

28.  Wu, SW; Chao, TC; Tung, CJ; Lin, MH; Lee, CC; (2011, Dec). MLC mediated beam hardening effects in IMRT. Radiation Measurements, 46(12):1989–1992.

29.  Yu, Pei-Chieh; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Wu, Ching-Jung; Lee, Chung-Chi; (2011, Dec). Dose assessment for brachytherapy with Henschke applicator. Radiation Measurements, 46(12):2028–2030.

30.  Chao TC, Huang YS, Hsu FY, Hsiao Y, Lee CC and Tung CJ (2011, Feb). Cellular Dosimetry and Microdosimetry for Internal Electron Emitters. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 143 (2-4): 248-252

31.  Tung CJ, Yu PC, Chiu MC, Yeh CY, Lee CC, Chao TC* (2010, Dec). Midline Dose Verification with Diode in vivo Dosimetry for External Photon Therapy of Head and Neck and Pelvis Cancers during Initial Large-Field Treatments. Med. Dos., 35(4): 304-311

32.  Chen AE, Dai SJ, Chu ML, Lin CH, Teng PK, Wang CH, Chao TC, Lee CC, Tung CJ , Duh TS (2010, Nov). Beam profile monitoring system for proton therapy. IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium Conference Record, 440-2. .

33.  Lin MH, Chao TC, Lee CC, Chang JTC, Tung CJ (2010, Jul). Tissue classifications in Monte Carlo simulations of patient dose for photon beam tumor treatments. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, 619(2010):393-6.

34.  Yu PC, Chao TC, Lee CC, Wu CJ, Tung CJ (2010, Jul). A Monte Carlo dosimetry study using Henschke applicator for cervical brachytherapy.. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. A, 619(2010): 411–4..

35.  Tu SJ, Hsieh HL, Chao TC (2010, Mar). Imaging properties of gold nanoparticles: CT number dependence study. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging, v7622. .

36.  Chao TC, Chen AM, Tu SJ, Tung CJ, Hong JH and Lee CC (2009, Sep). The Evaluation of 6 and 18 MeV Electron Beams for Small Animal Irradiation. Phys. Med. Biol., 54(2009):5847-5860.

37.  Caracappa PF, Chao TC, and Xu XG (2009, Jun). A Study of Predicted Bone Marrow Distribution on Calculated Marrow Dose from External Radiation Exposures Using Two Sets of Image Data for the Same Individual. Health Phys., 96(6):661-74.

38.  Liu CS, Tung CJ, Hu YH, Chou CM, Chao TC and Lee CC (2009, May). Calculations of Specific cellular doses for Low-Energy Electrons.. Nucl. Instr. and Meth. in Phys. Res. B, 267:1823-9.

39.  Lin MH*, Chao TC*, Lee CC, Tung CJ, Yeh CY, Hong JH (2009, Apr). Measurement-Based Monte Carlo Dose Calculation System for IMRT Pre-treatment and In-vivo Dose Verifications.. Med. Phys., 36(4):1168-75.

40.  Tu SJ, Hsieh HL, Chao TC, and Lee CC (2009, Mar). Feasibility of using the micro CT imaging system as the conformal radiation therapy facility for small animals. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging, v7258. .

41.  Caracappa PF, Chao TC, Xu, XG (2008, Jul). Cellularity in skeletal dosimetry. Transactions of the American Nuclear Society, v 99, p 67. .

42.  C.J. Tung, L.C.Wang, H.C.Wang, C.C. Lee, T.C. Chao (2008, Jun). In vivo dose verification for photon treatments of head and neck carcinomas. Radiation Measurements, 43, 870-874.

43.  Tu SJ, Hsieh HL, Chao TC (2008, Mar). CT number variations in micro CT imaging systems. Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging, v6913. .

44.  Tung CJ, Chao TC, Hsieh HW, Chan WT (2007, Jun). Low-energy electron interactions with liquid water and energy depositions in nanometric volumes. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, 262:231-239.

45.  Tung CJ*, Chan WT, Chao TC, Tu YH, Kwei CM, (2007, May). Inelastic interactions of low-energy electrons with biological media. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 580:598-601. .

46.  Wang JJ, Chao TC, Wai YY,Hsu YY (2006, Jun). Novel Diffusion Anisotropy Indices: An Evaluation.. JMRI, 24:211-217. .

47.  Xu XG, Chao TC, and Bozkurt A (2005). Comparison of effective doses from various monoenergetic particles based on the stylised and the VIP_Man tomographic models.. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 115:530-535. .

48.  Chao TC* , Xu XG (2004, Nov). S-values calculated from a tomographic head/brain model for brain imaging.. Phys. Med. Biol., 49(2004):4971-4984. .

49.  Winslow M, Huda W, Xu XG, Chao TC, Shi CY, Ogden KM, Scalzetti EM (2004, Jan). Use of the VIP-Man Model to Calculate Energy Impacted and Effective Dose for X-ray Examinations. Health Phy., 174-182. .

50.  Xu XG and Chao TC (2003, Jun). Calculations of specific absorbed fractions for GI-Tract using a realistic whole-body tomographic model. Cancer Biother. Radio., 18(3):431-436. .

51.  Bozkurt A, Chao TC, and Xu XG (2001, May). Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients based on the VIP-Man anatomical model and MCNPX code for monoenergetic neutrons above 20 MeV.. Health Phys., 81:184-202.. .

52.  Chao TC, Bozkurt A, and Xu XG (2001, May). Organ dose conversion coefficients for 0.1 - 10 MeV external electrons calculated for the VIP-Man anatomical model.. Health Phys., 81: 203-214.. .

53.  Chao TC, Bozkurt A, and Xu XG (2001, May). Conversion coefficients based on the VIP-Man anatomical model and EGS4-VLSI code for external monoenergetic photons from 10 keV to 10 MeV.. Health Phys., 81:163-201.. .

54.  Chao TC, Xu XG (2001, Feb). Specific absorbed fractions from the image-based VIP-Man body model and EGS4-VLSI Monte Carlo code: Internal electron emitters.. Phys. Med. Biol., 46: 901-927.. .

55.  Bozkurt A, Chao TC, and Xu XG (2000, Nov). Fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients from monoenergetic neutrons below 20 MeV based on the VIP-Man anatomical model.. Phys. Med. Biol., 45(2000):3059-3079.. .

56.  Xu XG, Chao TC, and Bozkurt A (2000, May). VIP-MAN: An image-based whole-body adult male model constructed from color photographs of the Visible Human Project for multi-particle Monte Carlo calculations. Health Phys., 78:476-485. .

57.  Tung CJ, Cheng CY, Chao TC, and Tsai HY (1999, --). Determination of entrance skin doses and organ doses for medical X ray examinations.. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 85(1-4):417-420.. .

58.  Tung CJ, Chao TC, Chen TR, Hsu FY, Lee IT, Chang SL, Liao CC, and Chen WL (1998, Jun). Dose reconstruction for residents living in Co-60-contaminated rebar buildings.. Health Phys., 74(6):707-713.. 


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